Chapter 1: Facing Disruption

The term disruptive technologies was coined by Clayton M. Christensen in 1995 and later replaced with the term disruptive innovation. Wikipedia describes disruptive innovation as “an innovation that helps create a new market and value network, and eventually disrupts an existing market and value network (over a few years or decades), displacing an earlier technology.”6 For our purposes we use the term disruptive change because we see innovation and disruption as two separate but closely connected aspects of change processes. Technical innovation – in our case, for instance, digital communication – creates the basis for changing expectations and changing behaviour of ICSOs’ donors, recipients and other key stakeholders; these changes may disrupt ICSOs’ business models and urge them to innovate in order to master disruption and stay abreast of external developments. We define disruptive change as change that threatens the key features of an organisation such as its business model and its organisational culture.